Evolution in Biology Textbooks: A Comparative Analysis of 5 Muslim Countries


This study seeks to explore the status and treatment of evolutionary science in secondary education in 5 Muslim countries, including Egypt, Malaysia, Syria, Turkey, and Pakistan. Evolutionary concepts, including natural selection, are presented in the curricula in all these locations. An explicit discussion of human evolution, however, is missing in these curricula. With the exception of Pakistan, though, religious references are not common in evolutionary science curricula. Pakistani biology curriculum presents scientific models and religious perspectives on the origin and evolution of life and presents interpretations of the scripture as compatible with evolutionary science. The current comparative analysis informs our growing understanding of the diversity of scientific and religious perspectives that Muslim students and teachers are exposed to in formal science education.

KEYWORDS: evolution, Islam, modern science, science education, science curricula

Anila Asghar , Salman Hameed & Najme Kishani Farahani

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